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 sick fish disease basic breakdown

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juice28
Chief Wrnt. Off. 2
Chief Wrnt. Off. 2
juice28

Posts : 376
Location : Norman, OK
Favorite Fish: : black false percula, spotted mandarin

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PostSubject: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime9/3/2009, 6:20 pm

since this a fairly new forum, i figured Id post a quick list of common diseases and cures for then for future readers to review. Most of these issues can be avoided with keeping proper water parameters and quarantine of your new fish for at least 4 weeks, dont be afraid to ask your LFS to feed them so you know you are not getting a sick'finicky fish NEVER dose your display tank with a bunch of chemicals (this holds more for reef tanks where as heavy medications will damage corals and inverts)

Ammonia Poisoning Red or inflamed gills. Fish are gasping for air at the surface. Ammonia poisoning is easily preventable. Avoid adding expensive and less hardy tropical fish until the aquarium has cycled. For more information on cycling your aquarium please read about the nitrogen cycle. You can use a substance called zeolite to help absorb ammonia but the best solution is to ensure that your aquarium has cycled and that your tank is not overcrowded. If your tank has not yet completed the nitrogen cycle, you will need to perform frequent water changes to keep the ammonia levels down.

Dropsy Bloated fish, scales are raised This is not really a disease, but a symptom of a bacterial infection. There are medications available but try to increase the quality of the water by performing a 25% water change. Do this once every 3 days. If your fish's condition doesn't improve, try the medication. Your local pet store should have medication for this disease. Remove any carbon filtration before using medication because the carbon will absorb the medication.

Hole in the Head - HITH, sometimes referred to as Head and Lateral Line Erosion - HLLE Small holes or indentations on the head of fish, advanced cases may show markings along the lateral line of the fish There are many theories out there, but no conclusive scientific evidence as to what exactly causes this disease. However, it may be attributed to poor water quality, lack of proper nutrition and/or the use of activated carbon for prolonged periods. Be sure to give your fish the best water that you can by performing frequent water changes. Give them vitamin enriched foods and change out or stop using activated carbon.

Marine Ich or Ick (Cryptocaryon) Small white spots showing up mainly on the fins or in advanced cases it may look like your fish has salt all over it. The fish may seem to "flash" or rub against objects in the tank. This is a fairly common fish disease and your local pet store or online store should have medication you can use. Ich usually arises due to stress. Many believe that you can increase the temperature of your water to 82 degrees Fahrenheit to speed up the cycle time of this parasite. Remove any carbon filtration before using medication (rid-ich) because the carbon will absorb the medication. Try to prevent this from happening by quarantining your fish in a separate tank before introducing them into your main tank. Saltwater ich is treatable if caught in the early stages. Move the fish to quarantine and medicate according to the directions on the bottle.

Nitrite/Nitrate Poisoning Tropical fish are lethargic or resting just below the water surface and you are getting high readings on your nitrite/nitrate test kits. Nitrite / Nitrate poisoning is not a disease but will kill your tropical fish. It results from having a large bio-load on the filtration system or from not performing enough water changes. Perform a partial water change immediately and monitor the nitrite and nitrate levels closely until the situation is resolved. You may have too many fish in the tank and will need to perform more frequent water changes.
Oxygen Starvation Most or all of the fish are usually found at the water surface. They may be gulping at the surface with their mouths. Check the temperature of the water. Higher water temperatures require higher levels of oxygen. You will need to increase the aeration in the tank with airstones or increase the flow rate with your filters. Try to decrease the temperature of the water by floating ice cubes in plastic baggies and turning off the tank light. If sun light is entering the tank from a nearby window, try closing the shades. Also, if you have an overcrowded aquarium you will definitely need to increase the aeration in your tank.

Velvet (Oodinium) Velvet looks similar to ich but velvet shows up as smaller white or gray dusty spots on the fish. Tropical fish with velvet will have rapid gill movement and may be rubbing on surfaces in the tank. There are a lot of products out there to treat this disease. For example, Aquarisol works on ich and velvet.

Clownfish HyperMelanization This seems to be a common occurance with clownfish that host corals. I assume that since clown fish's skin is adapted to dealing with the stinging power of anemones, the darkening of the skin is a response in trying to deal with the foreign mucous and stings of corals. this condition has never seemed to become a problem for the fish and they seem to do just fine

Turbellarian or "black ich" is caused by one or more genus of flatworm, with distinct life cycles as you see with the true marine ich. The only obvious signs of this parasite are the dark spots which is a skin reaction of the fish being attacked by the parasite and is not the actual parasite. Yet another very good reason to quarantine everything before it goes into your main aquarium system.

Brooklynella (clown fish disease) Similar in appearance to Uronema, these protozoa seem to be increasing in importance. The infections are initially confined to the gills but eventually will spread causing tissue irritation and skin slough producing ulcers. Fish become lethargic and secrete excess mucus. Death can occur within twelve hours from toxins released by the protozoa. First indicators can include heavy breathing, cloudy eyes, excessive mucus and Ich like lesions.
This parasite must be dealt with very quickly!!

Cryptosporidium nasoris a coccidian protozoan which attach to the lining of the guts of fish loss of appetite, regurgitation and droppings with undigested food in them. Other coccidia can invade the gall bladder, liver kidneys and even the gonads, effectively neutering the fish

Uronema Marinum - U. marinum are single-celled, microscopic, ciliated, opportunistic invaders that normally feed on bacteria in the aquatic habitat. They are constantly in an energy acquisition phase (always looking for food. When the fishes immune system is stressed, U. marinum will attack the fish, invading muscles and internal organs, eating red blood cells and other cells. Uncontrollable or recurrent infestations are typically indicative of underlying problems such as introduction of new fish, overcrowding, and poor water quality. Life cycle. This takes place by simple mitotic division, but there seems to be quite a body of evidence that in marine Aquariums at least, that high organic loads appear to favor the reproduction of the ciliate. The parasite can be confused for brooklynella which if treated is not a problem in misidentification since the usual formalin treatment will destroy both types of parasites. This parasite is just as deadly and as quick acting as brooklynella and will remain viable for some time even after the fish has died

Fin Rot. Evident when the fins show degeneration and start to look ragged in appearance. The most common cause of fin rot is physical abuse, followed closely by poor water quality.
The bacteria responsible for further fin loss is a gram negative bacteria and can be treated in a quarantine tank with an appropriate anti-bacterial medication.

Pop Eye /Cloudy Eye. A very obvious swelling and / or cloudiness of the eyes, this is most often caused by poor water quality or physical damage or abrasion to the eye of which secondary bacterial infections can take advantage of.
This is another gram negative bacteria responsible for this condition and can be treated in a quarantine tank with an appropriate anti-bacterial medication. As with all fish problems, stress is the leading cause of illness, usually water quality can be blamed. In good water quality, this condition most always disappears on it own without further treatment. For extreme cases, a medicated treatment would be advised.(Using a small container, place 4 liters of tank water and add 1 ml of a 10% solution of Baytril oral solution (enrofloxacin). Place the fish in for 60 minutes at a time once daily with an airstone and repeat for 5 consecutive days. The same water can be re-used each of the five days. This medication or solution should be available by prescription from your local Vet)

MYCOBACTERIOSIS - Emaciated appearance along the narrow, dorsal edge. A sunken belly becomes noticeable, although bloating (ascites) may also occur, due to fluid accumulation in the body cavity.
Unilateral or bilateral exopthalmia (Popeye) are common symptoms, as well as lifted scales, pale coloration, and in advanced, chronic cases, spinal curvature. All this soon leads to a loss of appetite, jerky swimming, greatly reduced reactions and reflexes. Ultimately, the affected fish becomes lethargic, seeking the corners of the aquarium, appearing to want to remain apart from it's tank-mates until it dies

HLLE or "head,lateral line erosion" Head and lateral line erosions seen in marine fish. Associated with an aquariovirus. Usually starts out as visible pitting (holes) around the eyes and along the lateral line. Better water quality and diet usually allow the fish to fully recover

Monogenean Parasites are better known as flukes or flatworms, which live as parasites on fish usually infesting the gill areas first. Being monogenean means that they have one direct life cycle and do not need an intermediate host to multiply. These parasites are usually transmitted by direct contact between fish.
Long term treatment methods such as formalin baths will be needed since the eggs of these parasites can survive initial one time treatments. Most are commonly located on the skin and in gill chambers and more rarely in the mouth and body cavities. They use hook attachments to grip the epidermis whilst feeding on the skin and gill tissue; this causes only superficial damage.
More importantly they can cause epidermal ulceration after heavy feeding thus in numerous quantities can in fact cause heavy damage. They are also thought to transmit other pathogens. Treatment should include antibacterial medications to prevent secondary infections as shown in the fish below.

NEMATODES or internal roundworms, Besides a "bloated" belly, having the fish discharge a "stringy" appearing excrement is usually the only first indicator that we will have of an internal roundworm problem. Although such a "stringy" appearance may also only be an indication that the fish needs a more meatier diet as well. For treatment, a medicated food such as an anti-parasitic food by Jungle that contains Praziquantel, levamisole and metrodinazole. The first two medications will deworm and the last one will work against intestinal protozoans. Another product call Ultra Cure PX by Gel-Tek can also be used.
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discusmike
Corporal/Specialist
Corporal/Specialist


Posts : 86

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime1/1/2010, 5:07 am

in my experience the zeolyte or ammolock is a waste of money.
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bkozolup
Sergeant
Sergeant
bkozolup

Posts : 127
Location : Pittsburgh
Favorite Fish: : Chrysurus angel fish

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime2/4/2011, 6:15 am

discusmike wrote:
in my experience the zeolyte or ammolock is a waste of money.
sick fish disease basic breakdown 858205
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bkozolup
Sergeant
Sergeant
bkozolup

Posts : 127
Location : Pittsburgh
Favorite Fish: : Chrysurus angel fish

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime2/4/2011, 6:16 am

To beat any disease feed feed feed watch your water parameters do water changes but feed feed feed. Supplements add real garlic juice. A lot will disagree BETAGLUCOMINE ITS A HEALTH SUPP FOR YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM . Brocolli and Bok Choy
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MarkM
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
MarkM

Posts : 1324
Location : Prairieville, LA
Favorite Fish: : If it swims and has fins and gills, I like it.

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime2/4/2011, 6:44 am

Very nice! Lots of great information.
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B-builder
Corporal/Specialist
Corporal/Specialist
B-builder

Posts : 65
Location : Mansfield Tx
Favorite Fish: : Fronts and calvus and Comps.

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime2/4/2011, 7:20 am

Very good info Thx
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ornate12
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
ornate12

Posts : 1340
Location : New Iberia,Louisiana
Favorite Fish: : Ornate Bichirs, Synodontis Angelicus, Filamentosus barb,
Aristochromis Christyi, Ptychochromis Grandidieri and all other Madagascar cichlids.

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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime2/4/2011, 8:05 am

Very informative! Thank you
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PostSubject: Re: sick fish disease basic breakdown   sick fish disease basic breakdown Icon_minitime

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